Czeschka was born on the 22nd of October 1878 in Vienna. He studied at the Academy for Christian Griepenkerl. At 21, he left the academy in order to operate as a freelance artist. For the publisher, Gerlach Wieling, he made illustrations and created the template for the portfolio "All kinds of thoughts in vignette form". From 1894 onwards Czeschka belonged along with Joseph Maria Olbrich, Josef Hoffmann, Gustav Klimt, and Koloman Moser to the "sevens Club", a chrackerbarrel of young painters and architects. In 1900 Czeschka joined the "Young Artists Vienna" before he was accepted as a full member in the Vienna Secession.
In 1904, Czeschka took over the technical school for drawing and painting and the Secondary School of painting was allocated. One of his students was Oskar Kokoschka. In 1907 he was brought to the School of Applied Arts in Hamburg and in 1909 he was appointed professor. Nevertheless, he continued his work for the Wiener Werkstätte. In 1905 he designed seven windows with allegorical representations at the Palais Stoclet. For his best client, the cigar manufacturer L. Wolff, he created a unified corporate face of the packaging, brochure, and shop fitted up on window dressing, in the modern sense of "corporate identity". He was one of the first commercial artists. Czeschka's work is very extensive; he designed prints, woodcuts, stained glass windows, calendar, theater costumes for Max Reinhardt, book art, jewelry, postcards, and furniture. He was one of the leading masters of Printmaking of Viennese Jugendstil, a member of the Wiener Werkstätte, the publisher Gerlach & Wiedling, and member of the Klimt group. Czeschka died on the 30th of July 1960 in Hamburg.